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LINUX HOSTING
What is Linux hosting (server)?

A network server that uses the Linux operating system.

A very popular open source operating system that runs on a variety of hardware platforms including x86, Itanium, PowerPC, ARM and IBM's entire product line. Based on many design principles used in the Unix operating system, and thereby often called a "Unix clone" or "Unix variant," Linux is widely deployed as a server OS and as an embedded OS. For example, Linux runs in most of the servers on the Internet and in countless appliances and consumer electronics devices (see embedded Linux). In the desktop market, Linux has nowhere near the same penetration; however, it gains ground slowly and steadily.

Linux is a multitasking, multiuser operating system that is known for its stability. Although modified by numerous people, its robustness stems from its Unix-like architecture that keeps peripheral software components isolated from the core software (the kernel).

Licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), Linux is the flagship product of the open source community (see open source and GNU General Public License). Numerous groups work on their own flavor of Linux, modifying it for various purposes, and several commercial organizations "distribute" Linux for a fee (see Linux distribution). Linux is an outstanding success because it embodies the major features of Unix in a modifiable open source package, including its compliance with the POSIX standard.

A server cluster is a super computer made out of other computer's, in other words is a team of computers interconnected working in either the same or different tasks all at the same time, getting results faster or handling big loads of traffic or heavy tasks, from high mathematics to scientific applications, there different kinds of cluster depending on your needs, High Availability which main task is to always be up an running by giving g the possibility to detect nodes with problems and the ability to change them without having to shut the cluster down, Load Balance these can balance traffic and load as they name say and High Performance like their name say these work this work with pretty heave tasks

Manashosting has the innovative webhosting technology to implement in the web hosting domestic market. The web hosting Panel provided by Manashosting as control panel of your domain is one among the best in the current market. It is your domain control panel, from where you manage all aspects of your domain and its contents. The domain control panel provided by web hosting company has been designed with the intention of making it easier for an individual to even act as a domain registrar possessing an authority to register a domain for self or for its clients and every now and then on the basis of requirement he can modify the web hosting account with every new update hence the domain resellers can benefit from such technology with the authority to register domain for its clients. It has become more user-friendly and more reliable.

When you access your web hosting account, everything you need is available right there in hosting panel or domain control panel itself.

The main tools available within your panels let you do the basic domain and web space administration required to keep your website in order. You can set or reset your login details, ftp details and email accounts from web hosting control panel. You can access and maintain all your databases from your web hosting control panel as well, review basic statistics of your website, check your bandwidth use, check which scripts are supported, block certain IP addresses (depends on the web hosting package terms) from accessing your website, check for and clear up viruses, make a backup of your entire site, and other general maintenance actions, or grooming, of your domain.

If your web hosting plan allows it, you can actually set up different domains within your single account and control them all through your hosting or domain control panel.

Within your webhosting panel, you will more often than not find a handy little extra applications called file manager. It is what made easier for a client to deploy website files in web space without taking the help of ftp account. Inbuilt feature of webhosting panel helps doing so, and this brilliant tool really comes as a handy element for hosting resellers who in this case every now and then need not have to memorize or search for ftp login information for different domains of its clients. It is not restricted to limited upload or download. One can deploy unlimited files in its web space using the feature however restricted to limited upload in some online software at one time due to unavailability to browse for unlimited files. Bandwidth doesn’t get much affected with such move and unlimited upload and download can easily be taken into process (incase the package has unlimited web space and bandwidth facility).

Some hosting panel has the feature of adding java applications separately to its web space package. As java is an important and widely used application most of the web hosting companies will make it sure the compatible features to enable the java application resides in the online software or control panel.

Many web hosting companies have added online shopping application in its web space packages which helps clients to add up the application to its website at ease rather swaying the process of manipulation and editing. These come free nowadays with web hosting packages. Most of the web hosting companies have included such applications for free in its web hosting package to let their client get benefited for hosting web applications.

Manashosting has started providing free search engine submission for its 2 years old clients. Based on the demand of our clients which they are looking to get for free along with their web hosting i.e. web space packages Manashosting has stated implementing this technique to help our clients to submit their website URL for free in over 8 lakh search engines.

Linux is an operating system which is initially developed by Linux Hosting Torvalds, student of the University of Helsinki in Finland. Linus thought that it would be a good initiative to have some sort of freely available academic version of UNIX, and promptly started to code. Linux had a curiosity in Minix, a small UNIX system, and determined to create a system which surpassed the Minix standards. He started to code in 1991 when he released version 0.02 and worked continuously till 1994, version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel was released. The kernel, at the heart of all Linux system is developed and released under the GNU General Public Licenses and its source code is freely available to anyone.

Linux has proven itself since long run as best servers in comparison to other as the operating system. Nowadays, Linux has populated ahead of its infrastructure services such as printing, file serving, web hosting and email, and is being accepted even in the enterprise datacenter. Linux currently progressively more searches the utilizations as business application servers and data base servers, poignant more inside into the datacenter as a tactical data store, database, and application host.

Since Linux Operative System is available free of cost which decreases the hosting cost at very minimal price? With this the web server, email server and all different software required to set up a web host as well as even My SQL database is free.

Linux hosting is a portable Operating System and can be installed on various hardware’s. This platform autonomy provides the Windows Hosting Company a broad selection in choosing server hardware, thus optimizing cost in comparison service features.

Linux hosting operating system possesses very high reliability and security and assumed as a well configured Linux web server with full security. Firewall, anti spam and antivirus services for your email can be deployed with ease through a well- knowledge server administrator. There are so many different patches facilitated for the Linux hosting kernel to increase security as well as configuration pinches which can be made to PHP and Apache.

Large number of independent software vendor support for Linux.

System vendor recognition and support.

Performance – Due to the configurability of the Linux kernel and core hosting software like the Apache Web Server, a Linux based server can be refrained specifically to congregate the requirements of the websites it hosts.

If you are thinking to host a website, then you have three typically three platforms from which you can choose where your site can be hosted- Linux/Unix, windows hosting & Macintosh. Almost all web hosts use Linux or Windows. Linux is open source and generally free where as Windows operating system is owned and sold by Microsoft. Thus a Windows Hosting server costs additional as the cost of proprietary Microsoft software that it runs. There is no problem in accessing to your web account as they are accessed through FTP or a control panel and both operating systems support these methods.

Nowadays Linux is utilized in number of domains, from embedded systems to supercomputers, and has protected a place in web server installations with the admired LAMP application stack. Torvalds carries on to direct the development of the kernel. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation that in turn supports the GNU components. Lastly, persons and corporations developed third-party non-GNU components. These third-party components include a huge body of task and may comprise both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Linux sellers and societies unite and allocate the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with extra package management software in the form of Linux distributions.

Linux can be managed through one or more of a text-based command line interface (CLI), graphical user interface (GUI), or via controls on the device itself.

On desktop machines KDE, GNOME, and Xfce are the most famous user interfaces, still various other user interfaces exist. Most famous user interfaces run on top of the X Window System (X) that gives network simplicity, facilitating a graphical application running on one machine to be displayed and controlled from each other.

A Linux system typically gives a command line interface with the help of a shell that is the traditional way of interrelate with a UNIX system. A Linux hosting distribution is focused for servers can be utilized CLI as its only interface. A “headless system” run exclusive of even a monitor can be controlled by the command line via a protocol such as SSH or telnet.
Most low-level Linux components, comprising the GNU User land, utilize the CLI absolutely. The CLI is mainly suitable for automation of recurring or postponed tasks, and gives very simple inter-process communication. A graphical terminal emulator program is frequently utilized to access the CLI from a Linux desktop.

Additional GUIs comprise X window managers like Enlightenment, FVWM, Fluxbox and Window Maker. The window manager gives a means to control the placement and exterior of individual application windows, and interrelates with the X window system.

Large number of Linux distributions holds dozens of programming languages. The most general collection of usefulness for building both Linux applications and operating system programs is found within the GNU toolchain, that comprises the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system. More GCC offers compilers for C, C++, Ada, Java, and FORTRAN. The Linux kernel itself is written to be compiled with GCC. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler.

Many also comprise Ruby, Perl, Python and other dynamic languages. Some of languages that have less common, other than still well-supported, are C# through the Mono project, and Scheme. Numerous Java Virtual Machines run on Linux, comprising the original Sun Microsystems Java Virtual Machine, and IBM's J2SE RE, in addition of many open-source projects such as Kaffe. The two main frameworks for developing graphical applications are those of KDE and GNOME. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qt widget toolkits, respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework. Both support a wide variety of languages. There are numerous integrated development environments available comprising, Eclipse, KDevelop, Code::Blocks, MonoDevelop, Lazarus, NetBeans, and Omnis Studio whereas the confirmed editors Emacs and Vim remain popular.

Linux/Unix operating systems has usually been thought to be very stable and robust. A web site hosted on a Linux hosting operating system will have very elevated up time. Of course, other factors such as power supply, network admin skills, and network load etc. also matter when it comes to maintaining the system uptime.

The Linux OS comes free of cost. Moreover, it has developed server, and desk top applications which are free with the OS. These server applications like Web Server, FTP, File Server, DNS Server, etc. creature free, are also very stable.

If you view it as web hosting, it is simple to host on Linux web servers. The process of uploading and hosting is approximately similar for both Windows and Linux web servers. If you wish to utilize a Windows based tool similar to Front Page for uploading a web site on to a Linux based web server, create sure which the Front Page extensions are allowed. This is only necessitates if you are uploading utilizing HTTP of Front Page. Front Page creates it potential to upload a web site utilizing FTP. You required choosing for up loading utilizing front page FTP choice. If you choose “Front Page Extensions”; throughout web site design, you should permit Front Page extensions on a Linux web server also. Now days, all Linux web servers are coming by means of installable Front Page extensions, and this must pretense no problem for hosting on a Linux platform. You can employ approximately all kinds of file extensions (or scripts) when utilizing Linux web server. Usually, the pursuing extensions are hold: .html, .cgi, .pl, .htm, .php, .shtml, .xml, and others. Principally it denotes which you can host web sites which utilize different kinds of server side scripts comprising of.pl, .cgi, .php, and .asp.

A web site that is hosted on a Linux based web server, if you want to host on a Windows web server, it can be done easily, where as the reverse is not always true

Linux/Unix based web hosting is most widely used compared to Windows based web hosting.

Linux hosting traces its birth from 'Linux', an open-source computer operating system based upon the concept of free software available to anyone to freely use, improve, modify and even redistribute. Windows hosting, on the other hand, relates to Windows operating system wherein the software is proprietary item of Microsoft.

Since being an open-source operating system, Linux hosting tends to be cheaper than Windows hosting. Besides, Linux hosting is considered as one of the main pillars of the LAMP server-software combination - Linux, Apache, MySQL and Php/Perl/Python. Popularity of Linux hosting among web developers can be judged from the fact that a great many open-source software have been created and are being continuously created for free use among discerning web enthusiasts.

whether one chooses Linux hosting or Windows hosting will to a great extent depend on what the webmaster proposes to do with his website. Here is a quick rundown of both Linux hosting and Windows hosting.

Linux hosting is a good choice if you consider that you have perpetual options of using open-source software for your hosting needs. Linux hosting would mean that the operating system is fully compatible with PHP, which is steadily becoming the most popular programming language.

It is important to remember that Linux is a breeding ground of practicing programmers all over the globe and innumerable applications are being authored, re-written and tested all the time. What this means in simple terms is Linux hosting will always keep the door open to let in fresh air of new discoveries? For an avid user, nothing beats Linux hosting in this aspect.

The other advantage with Linux hosting is that it is cheap. Why? Since most application software are free to install and use, the hosting cost is reduced to only maintenance of servers. Since proprietary software is not installed, many overhead expenses are avoided in case of Linux hosting. This enables hosting providers to pass on the cost-advantage to its customers of Linux hosting.

Here are some examples of popular open-source application software, mostly in PHP, that can be easily used in Linux hosting.

Ecommerce Shopping Cart: OS Commerce, Zen-Cart Content Management System: Drupal, PHP-Nuke, Mambo Blog : Wordpress, Nucleus CMS Photo Gallery : 4Images, Coppermine

Windows hosting makes use of Microsoft's proprietary Windows software for the host server. In contrast with Linux hosting, Windows hosting allows integration primarily with Microsoft's own products and services. For example, if you plan dynamic web content, you have to use ASP (Active Server Pages) or the advanced ASP.NET as your programming language, both created by Microsoft to be linked to SQL databases.

Interestingly, if you choose MySQL as your database, you may opt for either Linux hosting or Windows hosting, but in case your choice for database is MS Access, your option is only Windows hosting.

Windows hosting has limited support for CGI / Perl, so if your favorite scripts are in Perl, it has to be Linux hosting for you. On the other hand, good news for FrontPage users is that though it is essentially a proprietary Microsoft-owned software application, many Linux hosting do support FrontPage extensions.

There is an argument that the user interface for Windows hosting is much simpler between the two. However, of late Linux hosting too has improved on this score.

Coming to cost analysis, Windows hosting is costly not only because of proprietary software, but also due to the fact that Windows servers as such are costly, compared to servers used for Linux hosting.

In the world of share hosting, Linux server hosting and Windows server hosting emerge as two contenders for the top position. Though you might think that both are same at the first glance, there is a difference between Linux and windows shared hosting.

Linux hosting can run on Linux operating systems such as CentOS, Red Hat, and Debian while windows hosting operates on the Microsoft Windows Server operating system. Though operating system is not a criterion big enough as you can use Linux hosting on windows operating systems and vice-versa.

Many people are of the view that security is a big concern with windows servers when compared with Linux servers but this is a false perception as server security depends upon the web hosting company and not on operating system. It is, however, believed that hackers favor the operating system of windows.

Linux server hosting is preferred over windows server hosting as Linux is a free to use and open source operating system. If that was not all, more web hosting companies of the world provide Linux hosting making it win the battle in terms of cost effectiveness.

Linux is more stable and able to deliver better performances as compared to Windows when it comes to handling a lot of processes at the same time. If you want SSH (Secure shell) or Telnet access, meaning if you want to access files directly on the server without a transfer to/from the hard drive, then only Linux gives you the benefits. Some companies do provide this benefit on windows hosting, most offer remote desktop protocol feature or a virtual console. When it comes to language support, Windows prevail over Linux since windows support many features like ASP, .NET, FrontPage, MSSQL, Access, POP3, HTML, JavaScript, and MySQL that are limited as well as expensive with Linux.

If you are using a Linux server, file names such as contact.html and Contact.html are different names but on a windows server, they are the same names. If you are not a tech-savvy individual, you are more than likely to prefer Linux over windows. Windows hosting often waste precious time of its users by indulging in more downtime when compared to Linux. Moreover, windows server takes more resources than Linux when it comes to initiating processes, this means more rebooting and time wastage.

Now that we have read about the difference between Linux and windows shared hosting, let us find out how you can maximize returns on investments by making a single decision.

By opting for shared hosting India, preferably Linux server hosting India, you can save a huge fortune. In addition to that, shared hosting India allows you to make use of expertise at the lowest possible cost. Linux server hosting India can be the success path on which you can attain big profits. These are just one of the few reasons why the concept of shared hosting India is so popular in the world of shared hosting.

The most well-known open source software is Linux, a UNIX operating system derivative named after its creator, Linus Torvalds. The Linux Foundation, where Linus works, is more or less "in charge of" the operating system kernel. (Of course under open source development philosophy, anyone can take it and fork it into something else but Linus owns the name Linux.) The Linux kernel is turned into a platform by adding a wide range of utility software, primarily developed under the banner of the Gnu organization (gnu.org, which is an adjunct to fsf.org).

The combination of the Linux kernel and the Gnu utilities is still very primitive as compared to the way typical enterprise operating software such as IBM AIX or OS/400, HP VS, or--more recently--Microsoft Windows Server has been distributed for use for 50 years. So one or more open source projects were formed to combine the various components into a more enterprise-friendly distribution. The most well known of these efforts is Debian. Commercial entities were also formed to productize the combination; these include Red Hat, Suse (later acquired by Novell) and others. In kind of a hybrid of this process of moving up the technology stack, Canonical productizes Debian.

The most widely used open source software however is probably the Apache Software Foundation's Apache HTTP web server. Linux/Gnu and Apache HTTP use very different open source software licenses. (It is the Apache license that allows it to be bundled into closed source software in such a way that the resulting product does not have to be open sourced.) Ironically, more Apache HTTP software is probably running on Windows than Gnu/Linux operating platforms. (In fact, according to a census project begun by open-source-software service provider Open Logic in 2008, most open source software runs on Windows. Note however that the census is not necessarily statistically accurate because it uses an opt-in survey methodology.) The Apache Software Foundation also sponsors dozens of other middleware and application projects, almost all of which are associated with some commercial entity.

Although there are tens of thousands of open source projects underway apart from Linux and Apache, there are only a few that have gained widespread adoption at the enterprise level (and therefore are of particular interest to investors). The others include the MySQL databases (acquired by Sun), the Mozilla Internet browser, the JBoss application server (acquired by Red Hat), the Xen hypervisor (acquired by Citriz), and a series of programming development tools such as Ruby, PHP, Python and Perl.

Almost none of the above is directly relevant to investment decisions unless a publicly traded company's primary revenue stream involves the open source project's code (and therefore must adhere to the OSI-compliant license characteristics). The only such company currently is Red Hat. Recent announcement of Linux-based Open Source Mobile OS - MeeGo - joint venture of Nokia (maemo platform) and Intel (Moblin) is remarkable for open source initiative in mobile/portable device space. MeeGo is targeted for phones, Netbooks, in-vehicle systems, Internet connected TVs etc.

Of most interest to investors, many software products originally developed and marketed with a more traditional perpetual or periodic right to use license for a fee (and with closed source code) such as Java Enterprise Edition (JEE), Sun's Solaris operating system and Star Office collaboration software (open sourced as Open Office), the Compiere ERP suite, and the Ingres database have been made open source retroactively, typically after finding less than desired success when marketed traditionally.

Open source software development is relevant to investment research because it reduces the research and development expense of the publicly traded companies that make use of it. Much use of open source involves burying a component or software artifact deep into an otherwise closed-source software product or service (being careful that the open source license permits that use). For example, some version of the Apache HTTP web server is a component of most leading closed-source application servers. Alternatively many publicly traded software publishers and service providers redistribute a discrete piece of open source software instead of developing their own software for that function. Both approaches save the public software or services company from reverse engineering or otherwise creating from scratch a particular commodity function, or licensing the software from a closed-source software publisher.

Otherwise the development aspect of open source is not especially relevant to investment research. For development, open source software in theory relies on a community of independent contributors, some of whom are volunteers and some of whom are employed by technology companies. In reality, most popular open source software is written by employees of the commercial entity most associated with it (e.g., Fedora Linux with Red Hat, Geronimo application server with IBM, LogicBlaze message-oriented middleware with Iona/Progress). There are exceptions (e.g., Drupal content management software and Acquia) but the tendency is to merge the project with the company as the company matures.

There are a variety of open source software foundations that are more independent than the norm from the companies that use their project code for revenue generation. However even these foundations are heavily funded by technology companies (e.g., Apache Software Foundation by all the major market participants including Microsoft, Mozilla by Google, the Linux Foundation by IBM and HP, and so forth)

Any individual can contribute any code in any area they prefer, though there is generally a pyramid management structure that ensures that aspects of the software are developed in a rational fashion and determines which code/modules are eventually included in future versions of the software.


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